Sinkhole Areas (an indicator of karst terrain) in Illinois

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Frequently-anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title: Sinkhole Areas (an indicator of karst terrain) in Illinois
Abstract:
This feature class shows the distribution of areas that contain one or more sinkholes throughout the state of Illinois. Areas that contain sinkholes are susceptible to aquifer contamination and may also lack the stability required for certain land-uses. Sinkholes are one of the major indicators of karst terrains. This map provides basic data for land-use planning and decision making.
Supplemental_Information:
This is edition 20040408, derived from edition 2.0.

In April 2004 the source coverage was transitioned to storage in an Oracle RDBMS using the ArcSDE geodatabase model. The result (this version) is designated edition 20040408. Prior to this time the feature classe was stored as a coverage in the ISGS GISDB archive.

Edition 2.0 differed from edition 1.0 in that some sinkhole polygons in northwestern Illinois were deleted after field examination suggested that the depressions may have an origination other than by sinkhole formation. In addition, additional sinkhole area polygons were added in southern, southwestern, and western Illinois.

  1. How should this data set be cited?

    Weibel, C. P. , and Panno, S. V. , 1997, Sinkhole Areas (an indicator of karst terrain) in Illinois: ISGS GIS Database GISDB_HYDRO.IL_Sinkhole_Areas_Py, Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, Illinois.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?

    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -91.4244
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -87.3840
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 42.4951
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 37.1756

  3. What does it look like?

  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?

    Beginning_Date: 03-Nov-1992
    Ending_Date: 03-Feb-1997
    Currentness_Reference: ground condition

  5. What is the general form of this data set?

    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: vector digital data

  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?

    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?

      This is a Vector data set. It contains the following vector data types (SDTS terminology):

      • G-polygon (847)

    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?

      Horizontal positions are specified in geographic coordinates, that is, latitude and longitude. Latitudes are given to the nearest 0.000001. Longitudes are given to the nearest 0.000001. Latitude and longitude values are specified in Decimal degrees.

      The horizontal datum used is North American Datum of 1983.
      The ellipsoid used is Geodetic Reference System 80.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378137.000000.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/298.257222.

      Vertical_Coordinate_System_Definition:
      Altitude_System_Definition:

  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?

    Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
    Attribute items are in typical SDE feature class format. Those requiring additional explanation are:

    KARST - a value of "y" indicates polygon represents a karst area

    SQMILES - area of the polygon in square miles

    Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: none


Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)

  2. Who also contributed to the data set?

  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?

    Contact_Instructions: Please refer to the Distribution Information section.


Why was the data set created?

Sinkhole data can be used to appraise local, regional, and general geologic conditions that might affect excavation and construction of roads, pipelines, foundations, and sewers, and construction of wells. These sinkhole data are useful for local planning of surface projects which may have an impact on shallow aquifers. The data are useful for regional land-use planning projects designed to protect shallow karst aquifers. This map may be useful for the exploration and exploitation of limestone. Karstification may have an effect on the evaluation of limestone resources and an impact on the groundwater during limestone extraction.

These data are appropriate for use in regional thematic analysis. The data are not appropriate as a geodetic, legal or engineering base. The datasets were not and are not intended as a substitute for surveyed locations, such as can be determined by a registered Public Land Surveyor. Although useful in a GIS, the data have no legal basis in the definition of boundaries or property lines.


How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?

    none (source 1 of 20)
    Bell, A. H., M. O. Oros, and J. Van Den , 1961, Petroleum Industry in Illinois, 1960: ISGS Illinois Petroleum 75, Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, Illinois.

    Other_Citation_Details: 121 p.
    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution: not available

    none (source 2 of 20)
    Bretz, J H., 1923, Geology and Mineral Resources of the Kings Quadrangle: Illinois State Geological Survey Bulletin 43, Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, Illinois.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Scale_Denominator: n/a
    Source_Contribution: p. 205-304

    none (source 3 of 20)
    Bretz, J H., 1940, Solution cavities in the Joliet Limestone of northeastern Illinois: Journal of Geology v. 46, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Scale_Denominator: n/a
    Source_Contribution: p. 337-384

    none (source 4 of 20)
    Buschbach, T.C., and G.E. Heim, 1972, Preliminary geologic investigations of rock tunnel sites for flood and pollution control in the greater Chicago area: Illinois State Geological Survey Environmental Geology Notes 52, Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, Illinois.

    Other_Citation_Details: 35 p.
    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Scale_Denominator: n/a
    Source_Contribution: not available

    none (source 5 of 20)
    Csallany, S., and W.C. Walton, 1963, Yields of shallow dolomite wells in northern Illinois: Illinois State Water Survey Report of Investigation 46, Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, Illinois.

    Other_Citation_Details: 43 p.
    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Scale_Denominator: n/a
    Source_Contribution: not available

    none (source 6 of 20)
    Devera, J.A., 1993, Geologic Map of the Wolf Lake Quadrangle, Jackson and Union Counties, Illinois.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Scale_Denominator: 24000
    Source_Contribution: not available

    none (source 7 of 20)
    Ford, D.C., and P.W. Williams, 1989, Karst Geomorphology and Hydrology: Unwin Hyman Ltd., London.

    Other_Citation_Details: 601 p.
    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Scale_Denominator: n/a
    Source_Contribution: not available

    none (source 8 of 20)
    Graese, A.M., 1991, Facies Analysis of the Ordovician Maquoketa Group and Adjacent Strata in Kane County, Northeastern Illinois: ISGS Circular 547, Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, Illinois.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Scale_Denominator: n/a
    Source_Contribution: not available

    none (source 9 of 20)
    Hackett, J.E., and R.E. Bergstrom, 1956, Groundwater in northwestern Illinois: ISGS Circular 207, Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, Illinois.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Scale_Denominator: n/a
    Source_Contribution: not available

    none (source 10 of 20)
    Knappen, R.S., 1926, Geology and Mineral Resources of the Dixon Quadrangle: Illinois State Geological Survey Bulletin 49, Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, Illinois.

    Other_Citation_Details: 141 p.
    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Scale_Denominator: n/a
    Source_Contribution: not available

    none (source 11 of 20)
    Kolata, D.R., and T.C. Buschbach, 1976, Plum River Fault Zone of Northwestern Illinois: ISGS Circular 491, Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, Illinois.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Scale_Denominator: n/a
    Source_Contribution: not available

    none (source 12 of 20)
    Kolata, D.R., T.C. Buschbach, and J.D. Trewor, 1978, The Sandwich Fault Zone of Northern Illinois: ISGS Circular 505, Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, Illinois.

    Other_Citation_Details: 26 p.
    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Scale_Denominator: n/a
    Source_Contribution: not available

    none (source 13 of 20)
    Lamar, J.E., 1928, Karst Topography and Sanitary Engineering at Alton, Illinois: Trns. IL St Acad Sci 20.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Scale_Denominator: n/a
    Source_Contribution: p. 261-264

    none (source 14 of 20)
    Otto, G.H, 1963, Engineering Geology of the Chicago Area, in Foundation Engineering in the Chicago Area: Proceedings of Lecture Series, American Society of Civil Engineers N/A, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Scale_Denominator: n/a
    Source_Contribution: 3.1-3.24.

    none (source 15 of 20)
    Piskin, K., and R.E. Bergstrom, 1975, Glacial Drift in Illinois: Thickness and Character: Illinois State Geological Survey Circular 490, Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, Illinois.

    Other_Citation_Details: 35 p.
    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Scale_Denominator: n/a
    Source_Contribution: not available

    none (source 16 of 20)
    Rubey, W.W., 1952, Geology and Mineral Resources of the Hardin and Brussels Quad: Professional Paper 218, United States Geological Survey, unknown.

    Other_Citation_Details: 179 p.
    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Scale_Denominator: n/a
    Source_Contribution: not available

    none (source 17 of 20)
    Treworgy, J.D., 1981, Structural Features in Illinois: A Compendium: Illinois State Geological Survey Circular 519, Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, Illinois.

    Other_Citation_Details: 83 p.
    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Scale_Denominator: n/a
    Source_Contribution: not available

    none (source 18 of 20)
    White, W.B, 1988, Geomorphology and Hydrology of Karst Terrains: Oxford University Press, Inc., not available.

    Other_Citation_Details: 464 p.
    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Scale_Denominator: n/a
    Source_Contribution: not available

    none (source 19 of 20)
    Willman, H.B., and others, 1967, Geologic Map of Illinois: Illinois State Geological Survey map same as title, Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, Illinois.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Scale_Denominator: 500000
    Source_Contribution: not available

    none (source 20 of 20)
    Zeizel, A.J., W.C. Walton, T.A. Prickett, and, 1962, Ground-water Resources of Du Page County: Illinois State Geological Survey Illinois State Water Survey Cooperative Ground-Water Report Report 2.

    Other_Citation_Details: 103 p.
    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Scale_Denominator: n/a
    Source_Contribution: not available

  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?

    Date: Unknown (process 1 of 3)
    These data were digitized from USGS 1:100,000 topographic/planimetric maps upon which the original data were compiled.

    Date: 1994 (process 2 of 3)
    Reviews of data.

    Source map underwent ISGS peer review. Line accuracy was checked by overlay of digital print-outs to original compilation maps. Lines within one line-width of source maps were deemed acceptable. Attribute accuracy was verified against source maps.

    Date: 01-Apr-2004 (process 3 of 3)
    The source coverage (karst) was imported into an ArcSDE enterprise geodatabase feature dataset for storage. Previously it was stored as individual coverages. The data were reprojected from the customary ISGS Lambert Conformal Conic projection (NAD27) to a geographic coordinate system (longitude, latitude) in decimal degrees (NAD83).

    Prior to import, the spatial reference of the data set was changed to Geographic, decimal degrees, NAD83 in double precision.

    Also at this time, this metadata file was updated.

    Person who carried out this activity:

  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?

    , ISGS Terms of Use.

    Online Links:

    , University of Illinois Web Privacy Notice.

    Online Links:

    , University Copyright Policy (stated in the General Rules Concerning University Organization and Procedure, Article III, Section 4).

    Online Links:

    , Policy on Appropriate Use of Computers and Network Systems at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

    Online Links:


How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?

    Attribute code assignments were checked by at least two individuals and are believed to fully represent the original hand-drawn maps.

  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?

    Boundaries of sinkhole area polygons represent actual ground positions, but are generalized. Thus, this data set should not be used at map scales larger than 1:100,000 without specific field verification.

  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?

  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?

    This data set contains polygons indicating areas which are believed to contain sinkholes. Some sinkholes may not be represented on this map because of detection problems (primarily because of too small of a size, and dense vegetation cover). Not every sinkhole polygon was field checked. Therefore, it is possible that some depressions within the mapped polygons may have an origin different from sinkhole formation.

  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?

    When this data set was in coverage form it was checked for complete chain-node topology (no dangling arcs, except where appropriate), boundary values appropriate for map projection and map units, and appropriate "fuzzy" tolerances. There are no known arc or polygon attribute values outside the appropriate value domains.


How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?

Access_Constraints:
ISGS information must be obtained directly from the ISGS or from an authorized distributor. Be aware that ISGS information obtained from an unauthorized third party may have been altered subsequent to original distribution, or may no longer be current.

Any access to these data, Web sites, computer systems, electronic services, and electronic networks is governed by University and campus policies, in particular, but not limited to, the Policy on Appropriate Use of Computers and Network Systems at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, the ISGS Terms of Use document available at the ISGS Web site, and the University of Illinois Web Privacy Notice.

Links to these are provided in the Cross References section.

Use_Constraints:
This feature class is for use at a scale of 1:100,000.

ISGS information is the property of and copyrighted by the Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois with all rights reserved.  University copyright policy is stated in the General Rules Concerning University Organization and Procedure, Article III, Section 4. A link is provided in the Cross References section.

Individuals or entities may make fair use of copyrighted ISGS material, such as reproducing a single figure or table, or using a brief text quotation, without obtaining formal permission, but in all cases the Illinois State Geological Survey must be credited as the source of the material. To reproduce ISGS information beyond the fair use standard, permission must be obtained from the ISGS Information Office, 615 East Peabody Drive, Champaign, Illinois 61820, 217-333-4747, isgs@isgs.illinois.edu. License fees and a license agreement may be required, depending on the proposed usage.

Any use of these data is governed by University and campus policies, in particular, but not limited to, the Policy on Appropriate Use of Computers and Network Systems at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, the ISGS Terms of Use document available at the ISGS Web site, and the University of Illinois Web Privacy Notice. Links to these are provided in the Cross References section.

Map information is to be used at a scientifically and cartographically appropriate scale, that is, at a scale no greater than indicated on the map or as described in the documentation of the map or map data.  Map information is not appropriate for, and is not to be used as, a geodetic, legal, or engineering base. Map information has no legal basis in the definition of boundaries or property lines and is not intended as a substitute for surveyed locations such as can be determined by a registered Public Land Surveyor.

The data do not replace the need for detailed site-specific studies.

  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)

    Information Office, Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS), a division of the Institute of Natural Resource Sustainability (INRS) of the University of Illinois
    615 East Peabody Drive
    Champaign, Illinois 61820
    USA

    217-333-4747 (voice)
    isgs@isgs.illinois.edu

    Hours_of_Service: 8:00 a.m. - 4:30 p.m., Monday-Friday, U.S. Central Time
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set?

  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?

    Refer to the Legal Notices of Terms and Conditions of the University of Illinois Web Privacy Policy (there is a link in the Cross References section) for policy statements regarding the following:

    Disclaimer of Liability Disclaimer of Warranties and Accuracy of Data Disclaimer of Endorsement Disclaimer for External Links Disclaimer of Duty to Continue Provision of Data Security Choice of Law

    By obtaining these data you agree to the provisions of the University of Illinois Web Privacy Policy, regardless of the manner in which the information was obtained.

  4. How can I download or order the data?

  5. What hardware or software do I need in order to use the data set?

    The data are intended for use with GIS software. The ISGS uses ESRI ArcGIS software, however, ESRI formats can be imported into many different GIS software packages. It is expected that customers who obtain these data have the technical expertise to use GIS software. The ISGS does not provide software support of any kind.


Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 24-Feb-2009
Metadata author:

Contact_Instructions: Please refer to the Distribution Information section.
Metadata standard:
FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)
Metadata extensions used:


Illinois Natural Resources Geospatial Data Clearinghouse

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