Illinois Historical Aerial Photographs: 1936 to 1941 v.4

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Frequently-anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title: Illinois Historical Aerial Photographs: 1936 to 1941 v.4
Abstract:
The primary data set consists of historical black and white aerial photographs from Illinois acquired during 1936 to 1941. Alternative years of photography are used for certain counties when a quality set from between 1936 and 1941 cannot be located. The original paper prints have been scanned and stored as TIFF format images. The online images available are MrSID format images in which the original TIFF files have been compressed at a target ratio of 12:1 with the exception of 17 counties. Alexander, Boone, DeWitt, Douglas, Edwards, Gallatin, Hardin, Jackson, JoDaviess, Massac, Menard, Perry, Pope, Randolph, Saline, Williamson and Winnebago Counties were compressed at a target ratio of 6:1. The original photographic paper prints are at a scale 1:20,000.
Supplemental_Information:
HISTORY OF THE PROJECT: On May 12, 1933, President Franklin Roosevelt signed into law the Agricultural Adjustment Act, which was originally administered by the USDA-AAA. Since the mid-1930s, the USDA-AAA, now the USDA Farm Services Agency (USDA-FSA), periodically acquired nationwide aerial photographs by county. These aerial photographs were originally used by the USDA-AAA to assess the nation's agricultural lands and served as the basis for the national soil surveys.

Statewide coverage of USDA-AAA aerial photographs was first achieved for Illinois from 1936 through 1941. Approximately 33,000 individual frames were acquired for complete coverage of the state.

Negatives of the prints for Illinois, and 12 other states, were destroyed at the National Archives sometime during the 1970's. No formal reason has been given by the National Archives to explain the destruction of the negatives. One possibility could be deterioration and stability issues of the original 7-inch by 9-inch and 9-inch by 9-inch nitrocellulose (silver nitrate) negatives. The United States Navy and the National Archives made small-format copies of the negatives prior to the destruction of the original negatives. So far, the prints that project staff have encountered, that were made from these small-format copies, have been of extremely poor quality. Therefore, photographic paper prints made from the original large-format negatives are the best remaining representation of this aerial photography collection.

Two, nearly complete, photographic paper print collections exist for Illinois. The first collection, originally at the Illinois Department of Natural Resources Office of Water Resources (IDNR OWR), is currently held at the Illinois State Library (ISL)). The second collection, is archived at the University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign (UIUC) Map and Geography Library. Smaller regional print collections are also located at many Illinois libraries and governmental agencies. None of the collections are complete, however, and only limited preservation efforts are in place to ensure the permanence of these print collections.

  1. How should this data set be cited?

    Illinois State Geological Survey, Unpublished Material, Illinois Historical Aerial Photographs: 1936 to 1941 v.4: Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, Illinois.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?

    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -91.512817
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -87.483350
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 42.564692
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 36.911398

  3. What does it look like?

  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?

    Beginning_Date: 1936
    Ending_Date: 1941
    Currentness_Reference: publication date

  5. What is the general form of this data set?

    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: raster digital data

  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?

    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?

      This is a Raster data set. It contains the following raster data types:

      • Dimensions, type Pixel

    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?

      This local coordinate system was used: These data are not geometrically corrected.

      Not Applicable

      The horizontal datum used is none.
      The ellipsoid used is none.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is none.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/none.

  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?

    Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
    These data have no entity attributes associated with them. There are however naming conventions that were applied to the file name based on annotations visible on the photos. Photographs were scanned with the north direction oriented up. Counties flown west to east have annotation at the left side of the print. Counties flown north to south have annotation at the top of the print. Naming conventions for the digital files include codes for county, film roll number, and exposure number; zeros are used as placeholders. Flight line information is not included in the file naming conventions or the annotations.

    Annotation example from file "0bwq04036.sid": 11-15-38 12:30 AAA SCALE 1:20,000 BWQ 4-36

    11-15-38 = date (November 15th, 1938)
    12:30 = time (12:30 pm Central Standard Time)
    AAA = abbreviation for Agricultural Adjustment Administration
    SCALE 1:20,000 = scale
         (1 unit on the photo equals 20,000 units on the ground)
    BWQ = county code (BWQ represents Cook County)
    4-36 = film roll-exposure number (film roll = 4, exposure = 36)
    
    Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: none


Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)

  2. Who also contributed to the data set?

     Funding source:   Institute of Museum and Library Sciences (IMLS)
     Funding source:   Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT)
     Funding source:   Illinois Department of Natural Resources (IDNR)
     Funding source:   IDNR Office of Water Resources (IDNR OWR)
     Funding source:   United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE)
     Funding source:   Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS)
     Funding source:   Winnebago County Geographic Information System (WinGIS)
     Funding source:   Lake County Department of Planning, Building and Development
     Funding source:   JoDaviess County Soil and Water Conservation District (JoDaviess SWCD)
     Data automation:  Deette Lund, Sheena Beaverson, project staff
     GIS processing:   Deette Lund, Sheena Beaverson
     Documentation:    Deette Lund, Donald Luman
     QA/QC:            Deette Lund
    

  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?

    Donald Luman
    Illinois State Geological Survey
    Senior Professional Scientist
    615 East Peabody Drive
    Champaign, Illinois 61820
    USA

    217-244-2179 (voice)
    217-244-7004 (FAX)
    dluman@isgs.illinois.edu

    Hours_of_Service: 8:00 a.m. - 5:00 p.m., Monday-Friday
    Contact_Instructions:
    Contact this individual ONLY for specific information about the use of this data set. For general questions about distribution, or availability of other data, please contact the Database Administrator listed under the Distribution_Information section.


Why was the data set created?

United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Adjustment Administration (USDA-AAA) aerial photographs are widely recognized as a unique and detailed record of the cultural and physical landscapes of Illinois. USDA-AAA photography is intensively used for diverse purposes by government agencies, surveyors, planners, consulting scientists, engineers and other individuals. These purposes include determination of past land uses, restoration of natural areas, assessing historical changes in stream dynamics, and a variety of other applications.

These data have not been geometrically corrected.


How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?

    Not Applicable (source 1 of 6)
    USDA-AAA, Unpublished Material, Illinois Historical Aerial Photographs 1936 to 1941: IDNR OWR, Springfield, Illinois.

    Other_Citation_Details:
    Collection currently archived at the Illinois State Library (ISL) in Springfield, Illinois.
    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Scale_Denominator: 20,000
    Source_Contribution:
    Primary collection from which a majority of the historical aerial photographs were acquired.

    Not Applicable (source 2 of 6)
    USDA-AAA, Unpublished Material, Illinois Historical Aerial Photographs 1936 to 1941: UIUC Map and Geography Library, Urbana, Illinois.

    Other_Citation_Details: Non-circulating collection.
    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Scale_Denominator: 20,000
    Source_Contribution:
    Secondary collection from which historical aerial photographs were acquired. This collection was used when photographs from the primary source at OWR were not available or in an unusable condition.

    Not Applicable (source 3 of 6)
    USDA-AAA, Unpublished Material, Illinois Historical Aerial Photographs 1936 to 1941: USDA FSA, Peoria, Illinois.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Scale_Denominator: 20,000
    Source_Contribution:
    Secondary collection from which historical aerial photographs were acquired. This collection was used when photographs from the primary source at OWR were not available or in an unusable condition.

    Not Applicable (source 4 of 6)
    USDA-AAA, Unpublished Material, Illinois Historical Aerial Photographs 1936 to 1941: Lake County Planning Department, Waukegan, Illinois.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Scale_Denominator: 20,000
    Source_Contribution:
    Secondary collection from which historical aerial photographs were acquired. This collection was used when photographs from the primary source at OWR were not available or in an unusable condition.

    Not Applicable (source 5 of 6)
    USDA-AAA, Unpublished Material, Illinois Historical Aerial Photographs 1936 to 1941: Southern Illinois University Carbondale (SIUC) Morris Library, Carbondale, Illinois.

    Other_Citation_Details: Non-circulating collection.
    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Scale_Denominator: 20,000
    Source_Contribution:
    Secondary collection from which historical aerial photographs were acquired. This collection was used when photographs from the primary source at OWR were not available or in an unusable condition.

    Not Applicable (source 6 of 6)
    USDA-AAA, Unpublished Material, Illinois Historical Aerial Photographs 1936 to 1941: Western Illinois University (WIU) Leslie F. Malpass Library, Macomb, Illinois.

    Other_Citation_Details: Non-circulating collection.
    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Scale_Denominator: 20,000
    Source_Contribution:
    Secondary collection from which historical aerial photographs were acquired. This collection was used when photographs from the primary source at OWR were not available or in an unusable condition.

  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?

    Date: 2001 (process 1 of 5)
    PHOTO INVENTORY: A spreadsheet was created for each county containing information for each photograph, including digital file name, flight line, county name, USDA county code, roll and exposure numbers, agency which contributed the original photographic paper print for scanning, acquisition date, time flown (if available), CD-ROM on which the original file is stored at the ISGS, and any additional notes. These county tables were then joined to the attribute tables for the County Index Data Layer files.

    Date: 2001 (process 2 of 5)
    SCANNING METHODOLOGY (2001-2004): This methodology was employed for 45 counties that were scanned between 2001 and 2004. These counties include Adams, Brown, Bureau, Calhoun, Cass, Champaign, Clark, Clinton, Coles, Cook, Cumberland, DuPage, Fulton, Greene, Grundy, Hancock, Jersey, Johnson, Kane, Kankakee, Kendall, Knox, Lake, LaSalle, Madison, Marshall, Mason, McHenry, Morgan, Monroe, Peoria, Pike, Pulaski, Putnam, St. Clair, Sangamon, Schuyler, Scott, Stark, Tazewell, Union, Vermilion, Washington, Will, and Woodford Counties.

    Quantitative testing of the image detail present on the paper emulsion of the prints was conducted to determine the optimum scanning resolution and grayscale range. It was found that little additional detail was gained by scanning at a resolution greater than above 750 dpi. An 8-bit grayscale range was sufficient to reproduce all of the information preserved upon each photographic paper print. If the original large-format film negatives were available, the images could have been digitized using higher dpi values at an increased grayscale range.

    It is also imperative that each print in the collection be digitized only once to ensure cost effectiveness and minimize the exposure of each photographic paper print to the stresses of transport, preparation, handling, and digitization. An objective evaluation of several scanning systems was performed through a series of tests using a standard 20-step density wedge, circular target, fine gridlines, and an original 1938 aerial photography paper print. Based upon the results of this analysis, a Crosfield 646 IE drum scanning system was selected for the digitization procedures. The Crosfield scanning system was found to best maintain the original grayscale range and geometry of the original photographic paper print. Digitization procedures for these 45 counties within the ILHAP project were conducted by Scantech Color Systems, Inc. of Champaign, Illinois.

    Photographs were scanned with the north direction oriented up. Counties flown west to east have annotation at the left side of the print. Counties flown north to south have annotation at the top of the print. The photographs possess an average of 60% endlap and 30% sidelap; adjacent photographs are suitable for stereoscopic viewing.

    Date: 2005 (process 3 of 5)
    SCANNING METHODOLOGY (2005-2008): This methodology was employed for 17 counties that were scanned from 2005 to 2008. These counties include Alexander, Boone, DeWitt, Douglas, Edwards, Gallatin, Hardin, Jackson, JoDaviess, Massac, Menard, Perry, Pope, Randolph, Saline, Williamson, and Winnebago Counties.

    Due to a change in vendors a Crosfield Celsis 6200 drum scanning system was used for the digitization procedures. The Crosfield Celsis 6200 is an equipment upgrade from the Crosfield 646 that was used previously. The scanning quality remains the same. Digitization procedures for these thirteen counties within the ILHAP project were conducted by Martin Graphics of Champaign, Illinois.

    Photographs were scanned with the north direction oriented up. Counties flown west to east have annotation at the left side of the print. Counties flown north to south have annotation at the top of the print. The photographs possess an average of 60% endlap and 30% sidelap; adjacent photographs are suitable for stereoscopic viewing.

    Date: 2003 (process 4 of 5)
    IMAGE COMPRESSION (2003-2004): This methodology was employed for 45 counties that were scanned. These counties include Adams, Brown, Bureau, Calhoun, Cass, Champaign, Clark, Clinton, Coles, Cook, Cumberland, DuPage, Fulton, Greene, Grundy, Hancock, Jersey, Johnson, Kane, Kankakee, Kendall, Knox, Lake, LaSalle, Madison, Marshall, Mason, McHenry, Morgan, Monroe, Peoria, Pike, Pulaski, Putnam, St. Clair, Sangamon, Schuyler, Scott, Stark, Tazewell, Union, Vermilion, Washington, Will, and Woodford Counties.

    The original scanned files are archived in TIFF format on CD-ROM at the Illinois State Geological Survey. The files available for download have been compressed using LizardTech's GeoExpress (Solaris platform) MrSID version 1.3.1 software at a compression ratio of 12:1.

    No additional image processing will be imposed on these files to ensure the best preservation of existing feature details.

    Date: 2006 (process 5 of 5)
    IMAGE COMPRESSION (2005-2008): This methodology was employed for 17 counties that were scanned. These counties include Alexander, Boone, DeWitt, Douglas, Edwards, Gallatin, Hardin, Jackson, JoDaviess, Massac, Menard, Perry, Pope, Randolph, Saline, Williamson, and Winnebago Counties.

    The original scanned files are archived in TIFF format on CD-ROM at the Illinois State Geological Survey. The files available for download have been compressed using LizardTech's GeoExpress (Solaris platform) MrSID Version 5.0.6.1088.Bob_1055_br software at a compression ratio of 6:1.

    No additional image processing will be imposed on these files to ensure the best preservation of existing feature details.

  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?

    Illinois State Geological Survey, Unpublished Material, Illinois Historical Aerial Photographs: County Index Data Layer: Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, Illinois.

    Illinois State Geological Survey, Unpublished Material, Illinois Historical Aerial Photographs: Schematic County Indexes: Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, Illinois.

    Illinois State Geological Survey, Unpublished Material, Illinois Historical Aerial Photographs: Photo Mosaic County Indexes: Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, Illinois.

    , ISGS Terms of Use.

    Online Links:

    , University of Illinois Web Privacy Notice.

    Online Links:

    , University Copyright Policy (stated in the General Rules Concerning University Organization and Procedure, Article III, Section 4).

    Online Links:

    , Policy on Appropriate Use of Computers and Network Systems at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

    Online Links:


How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?

    For information regarding the file naming conventions refer to the Entitiy_and_Attribute_Overview portion of this metadata.

  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?

    These data have not been geometrically corrected.

  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?

    These data have not been orthorectified.

  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?

    Not Applicable

  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?

    Not Applicable


How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?

Access_Constraints:
ISGS information must be obtained directly from the ISGS or from an authorized distributor. Be aware that ISGS information obtained from an unauthorized third party may have been altered subsequent to original distribution, or may no longer be current.

Any access to these data, Web sites, computer systems, electronic services, and electronic networks is governed by University and campus policies, in particular, but not limited to, the Policy on Appropriate Use of Computers and Network Systems at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, the ISGS Terms of Use document available at the ISGS Web site, and the University of Illinois Web Privacy Notice.

Links to these are provided in the Cross References section.

Use_Constraints:
ISGS information is the property of and copyrighted by the Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois with all rights reserved.  University copyright policy is stated in the General Rules Concerning University Organization and Procedure, Article III, Section 4. A link is provided in the Cross References section.

Individuals or entities may make fair use of copyrighted ISGS material, such as reproducing a single figure or table, or using a brief text quotation, without obtaining formal permission, but in all cases the Illinois State Geological Survey must be credited as the source of the material. To reproduce ISGS information beyond the fair use standard, permission must be obtained from the ISGS Information Office, 615 East Peabody Drive, Champaign, Illinois 61820, 217-333-4747, isgs@isgs.illinois.edu. License fees and a license agreement may be required, depending on the proposed usage.

Any use of these data is governed by University and campus policies, in particular, but not limited to, the Policy on Appropriate Use of Computers and Network Systems at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, the ISGS Terms of Use document available at the ISGS Web site, and the University of Illinois Web Privacy Notice. Links to these are provided in the Cross References section.

Map information is to be used at a scientifically and cartographically appropriate scale, that is, at a scale no greater than indicated on the map or as described in the documentation of the map or map data.  Map information is not appropriate for, and is not to be used as, a geodetic, legal, or engineering base. Map information has no legal basis in the definition of boundaries or property lines and is not intended as a substitute for surveyed locations such as can be determined by a registered Public Land Surveyor.

The data do not replace the need for detailed site-specific studies.

  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)

    Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS), a division of the Institute of Natural Resource Sustainability (INRS) of the University of Illinois
    Clearinghouse Administrator
    615 East Peabody Drive
    Champaign, Illinois 61820
    USA

    217-244-9306 (voice)
    217-333-2830 (FAX)
    beavrsn@isgs.illinois.edu

    Hours_of_Service: 8:00 a.m. - 5:00 p.m., Monday-Friday
    Contact_Instructions:
    Contact this individual ONLY for specific information about distribution of this data set, or availability of other data.
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set?

    MrSID format files are currently available free of charge at the Illinois Natural Resources Geospatial Data Clearinghouse for selected counties in Illinois. Refer to the Identification_Information portion of this file for access to downloadable data and metadata.

  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?

    Refer to the Legal Notices of Terms and Conditions of the University of Illinois Web Privacy Policy (there is a link in the Cross References section) for policy statements regarding the following:

    Disclaimer of Liability Disclaimer of Warranties and Accuracy of Data Disclaimer of Endorsement Disclaimer for External Links Disclaimer of Duty to Continue Provision of Data Security Choice of Law

    By obtaining these data you agree to the provisions of the University of Illinois Web Privacy Policy, regardless of the manner in which the information was obtained.

  4. How can I download or order the data?


Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 16-Apr-2009
Last Reviewed: 16-Apr-2009
To be reviewed: 2009
Metadata author:
Illinois State Geological Survey
c/o Deette Lund
Assistant Supportive Scientist
615 East Peabody Drive
Champaign, Illinois 61820
USA

217-265-5642 (voice)
217-244-2785 (FAX)
lund@isgs.illinois.edu

Hours_of_Service: 8:00 a.m. - 5:00 p.m., Monday-Friday
Contact_Instructions:
Contact this individual ONLY for specific information about this metadata. For general questions about distribution, or availability of other data, please contact the Database Administrator listed under the Distribution_Information section.
Metadata standard:
FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)


Illinois Natural Resources Geospatial Data Clearinghouse

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